Terms Of Use

In this economic history online archive you will find authentic historical information from the beginning of the 20th century to nearly 1949 via the Internet.

The editorial team puts a lot of effort to identify the authors of the historical material possible for the online publishing. In cases in which authors could be ascertained and and their deaths lies within the previous seventy years access to individual documents is blocked until the deadline for copyright protection. We ask for your understanding.

This offer and its previous digitization is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the German National Library of Economics (ZBW) as member of the Leibniz Association. It is a purely scientific project. Commercial use on the part of the ZBW is not intended. Access to the individual documents is free of charge.

In general, the data are without commentary and are not recorded according to academic archiving principles. We do not guarantee that the information contained in the documents is accurate.

Older information could reflect the spirit of the time. In its presentation or in its compilation the information may have a character which appears biased or inappropriate according to today´s standards. This biased reporting does not represent the views of the ZBW. The same is true for external links included in some documents. Only the external providers are responsible for the content of external sites. Texts, images, links, etc., which are recognizable illegal, were not included.

Publishers and authors who want to assert the non-expiry of copyright protection limits or other barriers to put documents or links online are specifically encouraged to contact the ZBW. The easiest war is via the following email address: Email

Also welcome are other comments, hints at links or other assistance that may increase the usefulness of a document. Such messages will be checked editorially and attached to the document. Where such comments are available, a corresponding link is added to the document.

Any use of the available documents or parts of it is the sole responsibility of the user. Users are responsible for compliance with copyright or other provisions of the relevant applicable law itself.

Any brands (trademarks), titles, company names, designations, designs, patents or utility are metioned without specific reference to such rights. Therefore it cannot be concluded from the absence of such an indication, that the label in question is excluded from such or similar rights.

This applies in particular for historical designations that may still exist, although their historical owner is now defunct.